Infertility Treatment With IVF
In vitro fertilization (IVF) has come a long way since it was first announced as a medical miracle. The first baby of the In vitro fertilization (IVF) was born in 1978. Since then, a total of 5 million such births have bought joy from parents around the globe. This has also created a scenario, unfortunately, where many couples turn to this procedure without understanding its implications. Small, unsupervised clinics are prey to this lack of knowledge, and non-specialist doctors are selling themselves as “fertility experts.” Without proper adherence to the rules, an In vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure creates serious risks for mother and child.
What is In Vitro Fertilisation?
Generally, in vitro fertilization is a biological process that occurs in a controlled experimental setting in a laboratory vessel, test tube or other. To put it simply, in vitro fertilization is a reproductive treatment that combines sperm and eggs to make the embryo in a laboratory and in the uterus. An IVF child can be conceived through the cervix. Today, treatment with in vitro fertilization (IVF) is considered the most widely used treatment for fertility.
How Does In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) work?
One of the more widely known types of assisted reproductive technology (ART) is In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). IVF works by combining medicines and surgical procedures to help sperm fertilize an egg and help the implant of fertilized eggs in your uterus.
First, you take medication that matures and is ready for fertilization for several of your eggs. The doctor then removes the eggs from your body and mixes them in a laboratory with sperm to help the sperm fertilize the eggs. Then they put in your uterus 1 or more fertilized eggs (embryos). Pregnancy occurs when there is an embryo implant in your uterus lining.
IVF has many steps, and completing the entire process takes several months. It sometimes works on the first attempt, but in order to get pregnant, many people need more than 1 round of IVF. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) definitely increases your chances of pregnancy if you have problems with fertility. But there is no guarantee— everybody’s body is different and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) will not work for everyone.
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) Process:
There are a number of stages to be passed by the couple before they can conceive. Let’s look at the step-by-step procedure to understand the process’s complexities.
1. Ovulation induction:
This is your first treatment phase. If you use your own eggs, you will initially be treated with synthetic hormones to stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs rather than a single egg that normally develops every month. It is important to produce multiple eggs because, after fertilization, some eggs may not fertilize or develop.
The doctor may prescribe medication at various stages of treatment for this purpose:
Stimulation of the ovary.
To stimulate the ovaries, injections that contain a follicle-stimulating hormone, a luteinizing hormone, or a combination of both are generally recommended. This is going to help produce more than one egg at a time.
You are prescribed medications to help the eggs mature after the eggs are formed and follicles are ready for egg retrieval (this typically occurs between eight to 14 days).
You may even be asked to take medicines that might prevent the body from releasing the eggs that develop too soon.
Lining of your uterus.
Another set of medicines may be prescribed on the day of recovery of the egg or at the time of transfer of the embryo. To prepare the uterus lining, you are given progesterone supplements and make it receptive to implantation.
Before the eggs are recovered, your body may take one to two weeks for ovarian stimulation. But you will need to check blood hormone levels every two to three days during the course of medication and get an ultrasound for ovarian measurements. This helps track follicle growth–the fluid-filled bags where eggs mature and determine whether the eggs are ready to be collected.
You should be well aware that the IVF cycle can be canceled at this stage due to a lack of follicles, to premature ovulation, or to too many follicles that risk ovarian syndrome hyperstimulation. If for some reason, your cycle does not progress, the doctor may recommend changing medicines or doses to support a better response in future cycles.
2. Egg extraction:
Once the follicles are ready, a trigger shot is taken – an injection that helps the eggs fully develop and prepares them for fertilization. The eggs are ready for recovery after the shot has been given 36 hours.
3. Transvaginal Ultrasound Aspiration:
You are first sedated via medication before you experience transvaginal ultrasound (the usual procedure for recovering eggs). Usually, an ultrasound test is inserted into your vagina to recognize follicles followed by a fine needle into an ultrasound guide to passing the vagina and the egg follicles.
The eggs that are matured are then maintained and incubated in a nutrient liquid. Sperm infused with sperm to create embryos appears healthy and mature.
4. Sperm Retrieval:
Now it is your partner’s turn when a sample of the semen is expected to be provided that same morning. Rarely do the needle or surgical procedure to extract sperm directly from the testicle, and methods like an aspiration to the testicle. In the laboratory, the sperm is then separated from the semen fluid.
The most important phase–fertilization-will now be your eggs. Two popular methods can be employed. The first is insemination with mixed and incubated healthy sperm and mature eggs for the first time. The other in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) involves direct injection into each mature egg of one healthy sperm. In cases where the quality or numbers of semen are a problem or where there are no fruitful results from attempted fertilisations in previous IVF cycles, ICSI is often used.
6. Embryo Transfer:
The next critical stage is at the 3-day mark when certain fertilized eggs become multi-cell embryos. They metamorphose into blastocysts in two additional days. They develop at this stage a fluid-packed cavity with tissue that eventually divides the placenta and the baby.
You reach the stage where the embryo can finally be transferred to your womb after crossing the above stages. It is usually done after the recovery of eggs for two to six days. You’re getting a mild sedative here again. The procedure for the patient is usually painless. You will put in your vagina, your cervix, and your uterus a long, thin, flexible tube called a catheter. At the end of the catheter is attached to a syringe that contains one or more embryos suspended in a fluid. If successful, your uterus will be flared by an embryo six to 10 days after the egg is recovered.
Step By Step Procedure Of IVF Treatment:
Basically, this revolutionary procedure is used to treat fertility or genetic problems and to assist in a child’s conception. Before you try IVF, you may also go for less invasive treatment options. These include taking egg production medications or intrauterine insemination (a procedure where sperm is placed directly in your uterus near the time of ovulation).
But you should be aware of the procedure that you would be required to take during the treatment if you were one of those pairs who did not conceive of any other treatments and wanted to try IVF treatment. First, you should know that you use your own eggs and the sperm of your partner to perform the procedure. It may also include an anonymous donor’s eggs, sperm, or embryos. There are cases where it is also possible to use a gestational carrier–a woman with an embryo implanted in her uterus.
Before you proceed to treat IVF, the following screening tests will have to be carried out by both partners:
1. Ovarian Reserve Assessment:
To determine the quantity and quality of your eggs, during the first few days of the menstrual cycle, you must take certain tests to determine the concentration of the follicle-stimulating hormone, estrogen and anti-mullerian hormone in your blood. The tests can be combined with an ovarian ultrasound to predict the response of the ovaries to the medication for fertility.
2. Analysis of semen:
This test will analyze the health and viability of sperm, including number, shape, and motion (or motility), as well as examining the screening for infectious diseases, including HIV. A test for the sperm analysis may be performed before you begin the treatment by your partner.
3. Examination of Uterine Cavity:
This test helps the physician to check the cavity or space within the uterus. To conceive and maintain a pregnancy, a healthy uterine cavity is essential.
There are also important points to consider as a couple before taking the immersion into the IVF treatment cycle and talk to the doctor about it.
4. Transfer Embryos:
The number of embryos transmitted during therapy usually depends on the age and the number of eggs recovered. As the implantation rate for older women is lower (over 35 years), more embryos will usually be transmitted so that the probability of conception increases. This is only possible in cases of donor eggs.
In some countries, however, legislation limits the number of embryos transferable in one IVF cycle. This is because certain studies have shown that multiple embryos implant at once can cause both mothers and babies to be complicated, and multiple gestations are more likely to occur. You should, therefore, discuss it thoroughly with your doctor and decide on the number of embryos to transmit prior to the transfer procedure.
5. Multiple Pregnancies:
You should also be aware that IVF therapy can lead to multiple pregnancies when more than one embryo is transferred into the uterus. In some cases, people opt for a fetal reduction in order to avoid such a situation. This can help a woman minimize complications chances and give birth to a healthy baby. However, with ethical, emotional and psychological consequences, this could be a major decision.
6. Extra Embryos:
What do you do during the treatment with the extra embryos? The unused embryos may be discarded; however, you also need to know that they can be frozen and stored for future use. However, no assurance exists that the freezing and thawing process will continue for all embryos. This should be discussed and followed by the doctor and expert advice.
7. Other Issues:
Also, the risk of complications from donor eggs, sperm or embryos from a gestational carrier has to be considered. To do this, you should consult a trained donor expert advisor who can explain the donor’s legal rights thoroughly. You may also need a lawyer to file court papers to help you become an implanted embryo’s legal parents.
So, before trying the IVF procedure, don’t give up hopes of having your own baby. It can just change your life and bring the much-needed happiness you’ve longed for years to experience.
Also Read: Psychological Effects Of Infertility