Know About Vanishing Twin Syndrome
Although exciting, twin pregnancies are often associated with pregnancy and delivery-related complications. One such complication is the vanishing twin syndrome that involves the loss of one of the multiple gestations.
What is Vanishing Twin Syndrome?
Vanishing Twin Syndrome described as a condition seen in multiple pregnancies where before birth one (or more than one in a triplet or quadruplet pregnancy) fetus disappears intrauterine. Either the placental or twin is to take the waste fetal tissues for nutrition.
How Common is Vanishing Twin Syndrome?
Multiple gestations take place at a frequency of 3 to 5 per 100 pregnancies, as reported. Statistics of vanishing twin syndrome suggest that about 20-25% of these multiple pregnancies are witnessing the phenomenon of vanishing twin syndrome. This syndrome occurs early in the first trimester and rarely causes any complication in the mother in addition to subtle abdominal cramping/pain and vaginal bleeding.
Vanishing twin syndromes occurring during the subsequent pregnancy can cause complications, such as premature delivery, sepsis because of the retained design products, excessive bleeding, coagulopathy and an increased risk of spreading intravascular coagulation in small blood cells. If low-lying in the uterine outlet, the fetal remnants may cause obstructed labor and may require surgical assistance or caesarian section.
Besides the mortality of the vanishing twin, it can also affect the well-being of the other twin by causing neurological problems such as cerebral palsy or skin problems such as aphasia cutis (absence of skin).
Risk of Getting Vanishing Twin Syndrome?
Studies suggest that vanishing twin syndrome is associated with maternal age. Increased maternal age (over 30-35) requires often assisted reproductive techniques (ART), thus increasing the likelihood of many gestations. As already described, vanishing twin syndrome occurs in multiple pregnancies with a frequency of 20-25 percent.
Signs and Symptoms Of Vanishing Twin Syndrome:
A mother may be totally asymptomatic of vanishing twin syndrome in early pregnancy. It may cause symptoms similar to those of miscarriages during later pregnancy. This includes symptoms such as:
- Cramp in the abdominal
- Vaginal Bleeding
- Pain in the pelvic region
Routine blood testing may show a reduced Beta-HCG level or the hormone of pregnancy. The placenta secretes it and is usually tested to rule out conditions such as the vesicular mole.
These symptoms are non-specific and may only suggest that vanishing twin syndrome. If you experience any of these symptoms, you should consult your clinician.
What Causes Vanishing Twin Syndrome?
Why is the vanishing twin syndrome happening? The exact cause of vanishing twin syndrome’s remain largely undescribed. Placental tissues were studied in detail after the birth of the healthy twin. The main reason for the disappearance of one of the twin men is evidently the developmental malformations, and chromosome abnormalities, which are both largely genetic. Usually, the other twin is healthy and unaffected. In some cases, placental conditions may also be the cause of fetal death.
Risks and Effects on Mother and Surviving Twin:
The complexities of the vanishing twin syndrome are rare in early (the first trimester of pregnancy) for the mother and the surviving twin. The cause of fetal mortality, however, may affect the outcome of pregnancy. If it occurs during the second or third trimester, the other fetus is at an increased risk of developing problems including cerebral paralysis.
During the embryonic phase, the death of a twin can significantly reduce the amniotic fluid and reduce the size of the placenta. The living twin puts pressure on the dead fetal tissue which changes structures. The dead fetus may seem compressed substantially during delivery. This is called a fetus compresses The amniotic fluid and placental shrinkage can also be significantly flattened. It is referred to as fetus papyraceous.
Diagnosis Of Vanishing Twin Syndrome:
A diagnosis of the vanishing twin syndrome is often made before it becomes apparent that the mother actually carried twins. An ultrasound test confirms a vanishing twin’s diagnosis. It shows the presence of an embryonic sac with incompletely developed parts of the fetus or the absence of fetal heart movement in one of the two fetal masses (declining ultrasound diagnosis of twin syndrome). A blood test for beta HCG can also help diagnose twin syndrome by confirming multiple gestations. However, the only confirmatory and preferred diagnostic research is to vanish twin radiology.
Treatment Of Vanishing Twin Syndrome:
No specific treatment is required for the vanishing twin syndrome discovered during the first trimester of pregnancy, provided that the mother and the living twin are stable in their blood flow. However, it is advisable to regularly monitor the surviving fetus. If the surviving twin is healthy and scans show no abnormalities, with the delivery of a single healthy baby, there are good chances of a normal, uneventful pregnancy.
The treatment plan is largely based on the duration of pregnancy, developmental profile, and chorionic pattern of the living fetus in cases diagnosed later (in second or third trimesters). The twins may have been either monochorionic (common chorionic and amniotic sac) or dichorionic (separate chorionic and amniotic sacs). Dichorionic twin gestations are generally safe for the other with either twin vanishing and do not require intervention.
Prevention Of Vanishing Twin Syndrome
Genetic or chromosome anomalies cause the syndrome mainly, and Vanishing Twin Syndrome is consequently not prevented. In cases with recurrence or similar family history, chromosome studies and genetic work may be advised. Over and over again, unexplained errors can indicate that the couple needs genetic counseling.
Vanishing Twin syndrome is a complication of several pregnancies unfortunate and unavoidable. Progressive diagnosis and proper care can ensure mother and surviving twin safety and well-being.
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